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Friday, September 28, 2001
solution to prisoners' dilemma (via boing2)

The scientists represented each player's approach with a qubit: the player could try to win (given a value of 0); they could settle for not winning (1); or they could try for some combination of the two. Because the qubits were entangled, or interlinked in way unique to quantum laws, the choices of each player heavily affected the others. And Hayden's group discovered that this entanglement actually removed the dilemma. In other words, it eliminated the incentive a player would have in the real world to betray his opponents.

virus of love (via SDB)

Larry Young of Emory University in Georgia and colleagues used a virus to deliver a gene straight to the part of voles' brains responsible for rewards and addiction, the ventral pallidum. The gene made the animals' brains more receptive to the hormone vasopressin1.

soap lady

The filming made for a bizarre scene: With the television crew and museum workers eating cheese steaks a few feet away, the blackened mummy slowly passed through a portable CT scanner in a Mutter side room filled with large oil portraits of long-dead Philadelphia physicians.

Thursday, September 27, 2001
hey, enterprise was pretty good. i liked it :) hopefully, they'll do more shows on earth. it's always cool when they take it back home.

have you ever had a mosquito bite on the bottom of your foot? it itches and tickles at the same time.

Wednesday, September 26, 2001
third age of sand (via wood s lot)

So we come to the third age of sand. In the third age of sand we discover something else we can make out of sand—silicon. We make the silicon chip—and suddenly, what opens up to us is a Universe not of fundamental particles and fundamental forces, but of the things that were missing in that picture that told us how they work; what the silicon chip revealed to us was the process. The silicon chip enables us to do mathematics tremendously fast, to model the, as it turns out, very very simple processes that are analogous to life in terms of their simplicity; iteration, looping, branching, the feedback loop which lies at the heart of everything you do on a computer and at the heart of everything that happens in evolution—that is, the output stage of one generation becomes the input stage of the next. Suddenly we have a working model, not for a while because early machines are terribly slow and clunky, but gradually we accumulate a working model of this thing that previously we could only guess at or deduce—and you had to be a pretty sharp and a pretty clear thinker even to divine it happening when it was far from obvious and indeed counter-intuitive, particularly to as proud a species as we.

systems biology (via scitech)

TR: Is all this modeling moving biology out of the wet lab and into the computer—what some call "biology in silico?"

HOOD: Not at all. The message is that we have to integrate the computational tools with the data generated from biological tools. The systems-model process is really iterative with data generation, modeling, data quantitation, etc. The first time you go around the loop, you find that your model is not very good, so you have to do more experiments to improve it. This process repeats itself until you get to a place where the predictions you can make with the model are in conjunction with the experimental data you generate. You will never make progress in biology if you believe you can attack biological complexity solely in silico. The heart of biology is complexity, and we are going to unravel complexity only by doing biological experiments. But the integration with modeling and the graphic display of complexity is a central feature of what we're trying to do at the Institute for Systems Biology.

Tuesday, September 25, 2001
solar prominence (via blogdex)

impact at earth (via slashdot)

This illustration shows a CME blasting off the Sun’s surface in the direction of Earth. This left portion is composed of an EIT 304 image superimposed on a LASCO C2 coronagraph. Two to four days later, the CME cloud is shown striking and beginning to be mostly deflected around the Earth’s magnetosphere. The blue paths emanating from the Earth’s poles represent some of its magnetic field lines. The magnetic cloud of plasma can extend to 30 million miles wide by the time it reaches earth. These storms, which occur frequently, can disrupt communications and navigational equipment, damage satellites, and even cause blackouts. (Objects in the illustration are not drawn to scale.)

Monday, September 24, 2001
70's pic of osama bin laden (via robotwisdom)

kinda lets you see the enormity of going from the son of a saudi billionaire to world's deadliest terrorist. not to glamourize him or anything, but still strangely compelling :)

also, spaced penguin! (via metafilter)

Sunday, September 23, 2001
across the divide

On the sidewalk beside a destroyed department store in Kabul, a blue burka stood looking at me, and I heard a young girl's laughter inside it. Next to the blue burka, a yellow burka was begging, its inhabitant also young, or so I guessed by the speed and mobility of the movements within it. Side by side they stood chatting, their faces shining vaguely through the mesh. It was a chilly day, and a steam of pure-white breath came from them. What were they saying? They gestured within their shrouds, then sat down on the sidewalk, and suddenly their burkas flowed together, forming a tent beneath which the girls could meet face to face. To the girls, no doubt, what they were doing was quite ordinary. To me, it was nearly a revelation. Now the one in blue separated herself, then raised her burka over another girl, maybe her little sister, who was so young that she could go about with her face uncovered. I could see, within the warm and secret tent, the two heads moving together, maybe whispering—no, they were sharing food! Remembering the story of the Tajik woman's friend who'd been beaten for raising her burka to count money, I realized that this must be the only way for women to eat in public. There was something mysteriously amoebalike in the way the blue tent rippled as the two heads touched beneath it, the mouths tearing at bread or a scrap of chicken.

Saturday, September 22, 2001

Islamic Fundamentalists will kill anyone and anything in the name of religious JIHAD.

Capitalist Fundamentalists will kill anyone and anything in the name of MONEY.

--grant morrison

The original leader of the opposition to the West was Jalal al-Din al-Afghani (1838-1897). Called the "Father of Islamic Modernism, Al-Afghani was educated in Iran, Afghanistan and India. He traveled throughout the Islamic world promulgating an "Islamic reform movement." Using an Islamic ideology helped him to transcend ethnic differences in the region, and preach a message all would understand. He sought to mobilize Muslim nations to fight against Western imperialism and gain military power through modern technology. Al-Afghani claimed that Britain, France and Russia in particular were operating in collusion with Middle Eastern rulers to rob the people of their patrimony through sweetheart deals for exploitation of natural and commercial resources in the region.

--william o. beeman

It's always easier to share your wealth than it is to squander your resources trying to "protect" it.


Friday, September 21, 2001
like a percussive fart directed into the seat cushions, our episodic (as opposed to serial) stepwise iterative fable processes through the evolutionary threshold of the lamarckian testube that is the
C-K CoNNeXioN!!!

The Change machine is operational.
Trade in your musty currencies.
Get ready for some gaming.

Thursday, September 20, 2001
quek (via metafilter)

google h4x0R3d, j0 (via bOINGbOING)

the optimal number of criminals (j. orlin grabbe) (via carey, yo)

definitive list of things on bunnies

Wednesday, September 19, 2001
responded to a question chris mitchell asked on splinters the other day and he posted it! (sep. 18, permalink) the he/she "--" is me :)

oh, oh, and i got an article posted on slashdot! i submitted it a month ago, so it must have been worth something :)

and while i'm at it here's my money laundering post on metafilter :) i'm a self-linking link-slut bitch. user generated content, indeed!

Tuesday, September 18, 2001
hey, the message from the antipope was also posted on rec.arts.sf.fandom in a thread started by ken macleod! (via j. bradford delong)

wow, raaka can lay it down.

tim linked slate's explainer (kinda like straight dope i guess) which had a link to this cool looking book by robert wright, otherwise known as the earthling. curiously, j. bradford delong wrote a review.

also, how do terrorist "cells" work and the house of saud?

and from sources that will go unnamed :)

"...bin Laden has now married into the Taliban "family." His eldest daughter married the son of Mullah Muhammed Omar in early January of this year. In so doing, he is not only a guest of the Pashtun Taliban, he is family. No matter what is said on television and in the press, the Taliban will never surrender bin Laden, unless it is proven that he has actively moved against his "family" in Afghanistan. That, however, shall not happen [Ed. Note: It is true that bin Laden came to his daughter's wedding, and that US and Israeli intelligence knew where the wedding was held, that bin Laden was there, and that he was vulnerable to assassination. Nonetheless, the US administration at the time chose not to execute him when the opportunity to do so was clear... an error of judgement of enormous size, now having catastrophic effects everywhere upon society]."

Monday, September 17, 2001
two from the wsj:

Think Small
Distributed generation may be the key to making deregulation work

Imagine a future where anyone can produce and sell power: homeowners with rooftop solar panels; businesses with microturbines (scaled-down jet engines) running on cheap and plentiful methane gas; and even motorists who, after arriving at work in their fuel-cell-driven cars, plug into a distribution network to sell power the fuel cells keep making.

In this scenario, power marketers, using the Internet, link and control these and any number of other energy sources, bringing them on and off the electrical grid to match demand with market prices. For example, a power marketer could have contracts with several businesses that have microturbines or diesel generators, or with homeowners who have solar panels. These scattered sources could be grouped together via the Internet, and maybe on a very hot day in California when supplies might be tight and wholesale prices high, the power marketer could sell the power on the grid.

Consumers, in turn, are presented with a wide variety of choices: Depending on where the best deal is, they might buy from a traditional utility, a local power marketer or their next-door neighbors. Or they might make enough power themselves to avoid buying from anyone.

This vision of the future comes courtesy of distributed generation -- small-scale power production that is located closer to the user.

Distributed generation -- also known as micropower -- accounts for some 5% of the nation's electricity, about the same level as three years ago, according to the Department of Energy. Right now the main source is natural-gas or coal-fired cogeneration plants that, along with producing electricity, also provide steam for heating and manufacturing processes.

Over the next 15 years, the Energy Department estimates, distributed generation could account for 10% to 20% of new generating capacity. Proponents say that with so many sources of power production, competition among producers will flourish, forcing them to offer the lowest possible prices to consumers, thus driving them to develop better and more efficient production. That competition, choice, innovation and lower costs would realize the promises of electricity deregulation, say the proponents.

The Telecom Parallel

Tom Starrs, an energy consultant in Vashon, Wash., likens the current developments in distributed generation to the changes in telecommunications 20 years ago, when the breakup of AT&T Corp. launched that industry's reshaping. What followed was a burst of technological and entrepreneurial innovation that today offers consumers, whose choices once were limited to the color of the phone they would rent from a local monopoly, a wide variety of products and services.

"Distributed generation is a comparable revolution that is just starting, caused by profound regulatory changes and profound technical changes," Mr. Starrs says. "The historical paradigm of a large central power plant making all the power and distributing it all downstream is going to change."

As businesses install diesel- and gas-fired generators to avoid peak prices and homeowners add solar panels to blunt escalating electricity rates, utilities also are testing a variety of distributed technologies to find ways to add capacity while avoiding the long, difficult process of siting new transmission lines and power plants.

For most consumers today, buying power from the local utility is still cheaper than installing their own system. That's because without subsidies, even the most efficient distributed technologies generally can't match prices that nationally average about eight cents a kilowatt-hour. Unsubsidized photovoltaic systems, for example, can produce power for about 22 cents to 40 cents a kilowatt-hour, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a division of the Energy Department.

But several factors are coming together to make distributed generation practical for wider use, starting with energy shortages, rising prices and improving technology. Energy-squeezed states are subsidizing distributed technologies as a way to bring on new power supplies to help avoid shortages, cut peak demand and moderate prices.

Hot, Sunny Days

The California Public Utilities Commission, for instance, recently approved a $125 million incentive program to encourage businesses and homeowners to install their own generating capacity and take less power from the grid. New York has started a nearly $4.8 million pilot program that pays as much as half the cost of installing photovoltaic systems, which have the advantage of producing the most power when demand and prices are highest: hot, sunny days.

"Peak-shaving is the perfect role for photovoltaics," says Tom Leyden, vice president of PowerLight Corp., a solar-energy company based in Berkeley, Calif., that is installing the systems under contract with the state of New York.

But beyond the energy crisis, factors that will continue to boost distributed generation in the long term are the digital economy and a continual deregulation of the electricity markets, which can mean prices fluctuate by the hour, making distributed generation more cost-effective at certain points. Businesses with installed generation would get the flexibility to switch onto and off the grid, depending on prices. In Texas, for example, under a pilot program with TXU Corp., a Dallas-based utility, LaQuinta Inc., a motel operator, also based in Dallas, installed a natural-gas-fired microturbine at its Irving motel in the summer of 2000. By running the microturbine during peak afternoon and evening hours, LaQuinta saved at a rate of about $20,000 annually.

When the price of natural gas spiked near the end of last year, the microturbine was no longer competitive with TXU's rates. Now, LaQuinta is moving the turbine to one of its California properties. "With the prices in California, we figured we could get the greatest return on our investment," says Mike Milburn, the corporate energy manager.

Halting the Shutdowns

Businesses also look to distributed generation as an answer to outages. While the power grid is said to be 99.9% reliable -- which translates into only a few hours a year of outages -- that's not good enough for these companies whose computers can crash from a momentary fluctuation. By adding generation to back up or supplement power from the grid, firms can cut exposure to outages from a few hours a year to few seconds.

Near Rochester, N.Y., Harbec Plastics Inc., a maker of precision plastic parts for automobile, computer and medical-device manufacturers, recently completed the installation of 25 microturbines, providing a capacity of 750 kilowatts. The reason: The company's computer-dependent manufacturing process was losing hours, and sometimes days, because of shutdowns caused by fluctuations in the power delivered through the grid. In one month alone, the company estimates, those shutdowns cost $16,500 in lost production.

The microturbines will allow Harbec to leave the power grid altogether, since the company installed enough to power its operations, plus plenty of backup generation.

And Harbec Plastics isn't alone in making such a move: Capstone Turbine Inc., a microturbine maker in Chatsworth, Calif., sold 790 units last year, up from 211 in 1999. And the company says it sold 728 units in the first half of this year, nearly matching its total for all of 2000.

Among the utilities looking to distributed generation as a way improve reliability and expand capacity without building new power plants and transmission lines is Washington's largest investor-owned utility, Puget Sound Energy, a unit of Bellevue-based Puget Energy Inc. The company plans to begin installing five-megawatt gas-fired turbines at substations near neighborhoods with growing demand -- at the rate of about one a year, starting later this year. In New York, Long Island Power Authority, a municipal utility, recently said it would connect 75 fuel cells -- providing enough capacity to power about 100 homes -- to test the still-emerging technology as a way to add capacity and reliability.

But how fast the market will change remains unclear. Distributed generation faces technical, regulatory and political hurdles, starting with the challenge of making different generating technologies, scattered throughout the system, blend into the transmission grid. "A photovoltaic system, a fuel cell, a microturbine, all can have a different electrical nature that can feed into the system," says Chuck Linderman, director of energy supply for the Edison Electric Institute, a Washington, D.C., group that lobbies for investor-owned utilities. "How many machines can you put on the system without changing the harmonics that maintain electric stability?"

Frequent Delays

A National Renewable Energy Laboratory study of barriers to distributed generation found that these technical concerns have been used by utilities, which stand to lose customers, to delay small-scale power projects. In a review of 65 distributed-generation projects, the study found only seven that weren't delayed by a local utility's technical and administrative requirements, such as costly engineering studies required by utilities and high fees for interconnection, transmission, and access to the grid for backup supplies.

In one Maryland case, a 700-kilowatt steam turbine to power an office building was delayed more than a year by the local utility's interconnection requirements. (The study named neither the power developer nor the utility.) The utility, which had little experience with distributed generation before the developer approached it in 1997, told the study's authors that it subsequently streamlined procedures to avoid such lengthy delays.

These issues are being addressed. A group of utilities, regulators, distributed-generation manufacturers, and technical experts is developing national interconnection standards under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a professional group based in New Brunswick, N.J. Meanwhile, regulators in Texas, where the electricity market will be deregulated next year, have adopted rules making it easy to bring distributed generation online, while California and New York regulators are in the process of adopting such rules.

More problematic are political issues, particularly the future of deregulation. With the debacle in California, there is increasing pressure to reregulate the industry, a move proponents of distributed generation fear will thwart the innovation needed to make a decentralized power system work. Hugh Holman, a power-industry analyst with CIBC World Markets Inc., a Toronto-based investment bank, says a return to regulated markets would remove the two elements critical to distributed generation's development: consumer choice and price signals. Regulatory actions, meanwhile, have already had an impact on distributed generation: Recent federal price caps imposed on Western wholesale prices have pulled the plug on some 300 megawatts of small diesel generators.

"Do we innovate, or keep the lights on?" asks Carl Weinberg, an energy consultant and former director of research for PG&E Corp. of San Francisco. "In the long run we want a clean, affordable electricity supply coupled to efficient, smart customers. All those are technically achievable. Whether they're politically achievable, I don't know."

Power Shopping
A variety of distributed-generation technologies are available or under development. Costs of producing power can vary widely, depending on location, size, use and fuel prices, but here are estimates:

Technology Description Cost*
Photovoltaics Converts sunlights into electricity 22-40 cents
Wind turbines Wind blades power electricity-producing turbines 4-28 cents
Diesel generators Simliar to truck engines, also run on natural gas 7-12 cents
Microturbine Scaled-down jet engines that run on natural gas, methane or waste gases 7-10 cents
Fuel cells Chemical reaction produces electricity and water No commercial production

* Per kilowatt-hour, without subsidies. For comparison, the average U.S. retail electricity price earlier this year 6.9 cents per kwh.

Source: Department of Energy; National Renewable Energy Laboratory; American Wiind Energy Association; manufacturers

Write to Robert Gavin at

Inventive Answers
Small technological improvements could translate into big reductions in energy use

When it comes to developing technologies to save energy, the humble refrigerator may provide the perfect blueprint.

Some "relatively modest design changes," in the words of one appliance-development consultant, including larger coils, improved compressors and increased insulation, have cut refrigerators' energy consumption by 60% over the past two decades. The changes have made refrigerators one of the biggest success stories in the effort to save energy, says Alan Meier, a researcher at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California.

We can still dream about solving our power crunch with things like a perpetual-motion machine that runs forever without refueling -- one of engineering's holy grails. But in the real world, experts say, the biggest leaps in saving energy usually come from incremental technological improvements on old practices and products.

"There isn't a silver bullet," says David Garman, the U.S. Energy Department's assistant secretary for energy-efficiency programs. "There isn't a single 'gee whiz' technology that changes everything. You usually have to try to do a lot of little things to achieve energy savings."

Indeed, in the next few years, energy experts expect some of the biggest savings to come from efforts that build on existing technologies. These include development of more lighting fixtures made especially for compact fluorescent bulbs to encourage wider use of the big energy savers; improved gaskets, joints and seals in heating and air-conditioning ducts to prevent air leaks in the systems, which account for 43% of the energy use in our homes and 32% in commercial buildings; and commercialization of an improved version of a water heater that supplements its own electric heating system by drawing heat from the surrounding air, for a reduction in energy use of up to 60%.

In addition to those kinds of product- and system-specific efforts, many potential improvements with broader implications are being put into use now, or are expected in the near future. Here is a look at several:

'Smart' Buildings

A growing number of appliances and systems in the home and workplace are getting a lot smarter and are talking to each other. As a result, they can react to specific circumstances and demands, rather than run in set modes that could be sucking up too much power for the job at hand. The added brainpower comes from infusing existing products and systems with newer technology, such as sensors, microprocessors and computer networking.

So now, washing machines are figuring out how big and how soiled a load of clothes is, and adjusting water and temperature levels accordingly. Dishwashers are shortening or lengthening cycles, depending on how dirty the water is as it recirculates. Lighting systems are shutting down if they don't detect motion in a room, or dimming or brightening depending on changing natural light. Heating and cooling systems are powered by sophisticated motors whose speeds vary depending on conditions, rather than having two settings -- "on" or "off."

Increasingly, these systems and appliances, especially in commercial buildings, are connected by computer networks that can monitor for problems and automatically respond to changing needs.

"We can link up each appliance or product, they can talk to one another, we can run them on different times of the day, based on when electricity might be cheaper or more reliable," says Richard Topping, who specializes in this so-called smart technology for consulting firm Arthur D. Little Inc. in Cambridge, Mass. "The whole idea of integrating discrete products is probably the biggest opportunity for savings in energy."

Such systems are still a rarity at home because of costs and availability, but they are becoming more common in industry, with old plants being upgraded and new ones being built with connectivity in mind. For example, an integrated system might take the exhaust heat generated by motors running some aspect of a company's operation and use it to help provide space heating.

"Over the next five years," says Mr. Topping, due to falling component costs, "we'll probably see the majority of appliances starting to have some type of electronics" that make them smarter.

Superconductive Cables

The nearly century-old science of superconductivity -- the ability of a material to conduct electricity without losses caused by resistance -- has advanced far enough that it's being tested this fall in Detroit for delivering electricity to about 14,000 residents. Some 1,200 feet of superconductive cable was installed underground, and is expected to deliver as much as five times more electricity than standard copper wire, which is larger and heavier, with less energy loss.

"It's analogous to moving from copper wire to fiber optics" in communications transmissions, says the Department of Energy's Mr. Garman. "You get a lot more throughput in a smaller package."

The Detroit project involves American Superconductor Corp. of Westborough, Mass., Italy's Pirelli Cables & Systems, Detroit Edison Co. of Detroit and others. If it's successful, the project probably will be replicated elsewhere to meet rising power demands by supplementing existing copper cables or replacing them, significantly increasing transmission capacity.

Standby-Power Reduction

The flashing clock on your VCR isn't only annoying, it's an energy hog. Because of their need for standby power to be ready on demand, VCRs, stereos, television sets and other common household appliances are sucking energy out of the electric grid even when not in use. Taken individually, it may not seem like much. But altogether, standby power accounts for 4% to 7% of residential energy use, says Lawrence Berkeley Lab's Mr. Meier, who launched an international campaign to cut standby demands.

"New technologies have become available to tame the vampires and reduce standby power by as much as 90% without sacrificing any features," says Mr. Meier. Some manufacturers already are using the new technologies in some of their products, such as a VCR made by Japan's Sharp Electronics Corp. that uses only half a watt in standby mode. But most don't, and some devices can use up to 40 watts of power in standby mode, he says.

Mr. Meier has proposed to governments in countries with significant manufacturing operations the Global 1-Watt Plan, which calls for a reduction of standby power to one watt per appliance by 2010. The idea is gaining interest, he says, but so far the only plans that have been adopted are voluntary. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is now including standby-power limits as part of the qualifications for its Energy Star labels, which are used to identify and promote energy-efficient products.

Distributed Generation

California's rolling blackouts and skyrocketing energy prices have increased interest in developing distributed generation, in which power is produced at or near the site where it's going to be used by generators that are smaller and, ideally, more efficient and cleaner than traditional large power plants. In the best scenario, owners of the devices are not only free of uncertainties like the power disruptions in traditional power-distribution system, but they can also sell their excess energy back into it.

Distributed generation is now just a blip on the supply screen. But by 2010, it should account for more than 15% of total electric energy generation, according to the Advanced Power and Energy Program at the University of California at Irvine. Microturbines, solar-powered systems and fuel cells are expected to be among the biggest sources.

Fuel cells chemically combine hydrogen and oxygen to convert fuel into electricity without combustion and associated emissions. They were invented in the 1830s, but so far, visions of their potential uses have generated more heat than fuel cells themselves. Many companies are working on them, but few are actually on the market and prices are high because of the limited production. The capital cost of a fuel cell is more than $4,000 a kilowatt, compared with about $500 to $800 a kilowatt for a traditional diesel generator.

"We're clearly into the beta stage now and over the next two years," says Karl Rabago of the Rocky Mountain Institute, an environmental think tank in Snowmass, Colo. But he expects "mass-market commercialization within five years."

Microturbines also are not yet widely available, but manufacturing and sales have picked up in the past two years, and they are more cost-competitive than fuel cells, at about $1,000 per kilowatt, says Scott Samuelsen, director of the Advanced Power and Energy Program at UC-Irvine. Microturbines are refrigerator-size turbines that generally run on natural gas and burn cleaner and require less maintenance than diesel generators.

Capstone Turbine Corp. of Chatsworth, Calif., has emerged as a leading maker of the devices, but there are some big-name players in the market or about to enter it, including Honeywell International Inc., Morristown, N.J., and Ingersoll-Rand Co. of Woodcliff Lake, N.J. Capstone shipped 728 microturbines in the first half of this year, nearly as many as it sold in all of 2000.

Meantime, photovoltaics -- which convert sunlight into electricity -- already are seeing significant sales increases. Consulting firm Arthur D. Little says world-wide sales and installation revenue jumped to $3.2 billion last year from about $2 billion in 1999, and projects 25% annual growth through 2005.

Lisa Frantzis, director of renewables in advanced energy systems at Arthur D. Little, says the growth is being spurred by a combination of things, including improvements that make the systems more efficient, reduced prices and, in some instances, subsidies from governments or power companies.

Where It Goes
By looking at where energy is consumed, users can decide where the biggest savings might be achieved

Residential Energy Use (a)

Space heating 33%
Water heating 15
Space cooling 10
Refrigeration 9
Lighting 6
Electronics 5
Cooking products 5
Washers/dryers 4
Computers 1
Other 12

Commercial Energy Use (b)

Lighting  29%
Space heating 19
Space cooling 13
Water heating 9
Office equipment 7
Ventilation 6
Refrigeration 4
Computers 2
Cooking 2
Other 9

(a) Includes small electric devices, motors, heaters for swimming pools and hot tubs and other uses.

(b) Includes service-station equipment, automated teller machines, telecommunications equipment, medical equipment, street lighting and other uses.

Source: Arthur D. Little Inc.

Write to Brenda L. Moore at

Sunday, September 16, 2001
pitchfork reviews mercury rev and the microphones

spiritualized single (via muchmusic)

erik davis writes cover story for wired! william gibson article on japan

wind-powered building (via slashdot)

buried news -- china enters WTO, henry kissinger sued

baby rhino (via zen calm ink :)

a r c h i v e

w r i t t e n
get out
on violence
horror story
disney land
from earth
human matrix
crazy guy
US engagement

f r i e n d s

a b o u t m e